Keynote 2
Speaker:          John Cornish
Affiliation:         ARM Ltd.,
                        Cambridge, England
Title:     Balanced Energy Optimization

Energy efficiency is now the number one issue for many systems, determining weight and cost, and constraining performance. Many techniques have been developed to minimize the dynamic and static power consumed by digital designs without any impact on functionality. To achieve further savings it is necessary to employ methods that do constrain functionality in some way. The designer must then balance increased energy efficiency with the functional implications of those techniques. Processing scalability can be employed to increase energy efficiency for workloads which vary dynamically. In single processor system this can be achieved using voltage and frequency scaling, and in multi-processor systems this can be supplemented with adaptive shutdown of unused processors. Scalability does imply a loss of system responsiveness when workloads transition from low to high levels, and this must be balanced against the increased energy efficiency achieved. Power efficiency can also be increased by optimising a processor for the application it is intended to run. By analyzing the algorithms to be executed it is possible to create a processor tailored to its workload. This loss of generality and flexibility must be balanced against the increased energy efficiency of a customized implementation. This talk describes work which ARM and its partners are doing to balance energy efficiency with functionality to create optimized designs.